Learn everything about Chateau Pavie St. Emilion, Premier Cru Classe A with wine tasting notes and wine with food pairing tips. Learn all the best vintages, a history of the property and information on the vineyards and winemaking. If you want to read about other important, Bordeaux Chateaux: Links to all Bordeaux Wine Producer Profiles
Chateau Pavie History, Overview
The slopes of Chateau Pavie and Ausone were first planted by the ancient Romans in the fourth century. However, Chateau Pavie did not become famous as a Saint Emilion wine producer until almost two thousand years later.
Chateau Pavie was definitely famous by the mid 19th century. At the time, the Robert Parker of the day was the Bordeaux bible published by Cocks and Feret’s “Bordeaux et ses vins.” In 1850, the first edition was already high on the wines from Pavie as they named it one of the First classed Growths in Saint Emilion.
It was Bouffard’s desire to increase the size of the vineyards. In time he managed to put together a 50 hectare vineyard with an annual production that ranged from 12,500 to 15,000 cases per year. That made Chateau Pavie one of the largest estates in the Right Bank!
By the late 1800’s, Chateau Pavie and Pavie Decesse were fully separate estates. Close to the same time, the Macquin family was also busy purchasing parcels of vineyards in the same region too. Those purchases led to the creation of Chateau Pavie Macquin.
Jumping ahead to the next century and the start of the First World War, Ferdinand Bouffard sold Chateau Pavie to Albert Porte who eventually sold the vineyard to the Valette family. The Valette family was were well-known Bordeaux negociants from Paris.
If the Valette name sounds familiar, that’s because Christine Valette was the popular owner of Chateau Troplong Mondot. Chateau Pavie was classified as Premier Grand Cru Classe “B” while under the Valette families management in 1954. That changed in 2012 with the new Classification of St. Emilion when Chateau Pavie was elevated to Premier Grand Cru Classe A!
Chateau Pavie The Modern Age
In 1998, Gerard Perse, who already owned Chateau Monbousquet purchased Chateau Pavie from the Valette family for $31,000,000. Chateau Pavie experienced a rebirth thanks to the drive and the spare no expense attitude of Gerard Perse and Chantal Perse. At the time of the purchase, the vineyards were in poor shape.
Pavie required extensive replanting to reach the proper level of vine density. There were also parcels that needed cultivation. At least 25% of the vineyard needed extensive work.
In 2002 Gerard Perse expanded the vineyards of Chateau Pavie by 2.5 hectares when the vines of Chateau La Clusiere vines were incorporated into Chateau Pavie. This was allowed to take place because of the similarity of terroirs which led the INAO. In 2002, to authorize the integration (or, perhaps the reintegration) of Chateau La Clusiere into the vineyard of Pavie.
At the same time, a small part of the Pavie Decesse vineyards were also merged into Chateau Pavie. This reduced the area of Pavie Decesse from 9.5 hectares to its current 3.5 hectare size, while increasing the vineyards of Chateau Pavie.
Chateau Pavie completed a renovation of the entire estate shortly after it was purchased by Gerard Perse. The project took two years to complete and was finished in 2000. In 2011, Chateau Pavie once again began a complete renovation of the entire wine making facilities at Chateau Pavie!
According to Gerard Perse, a lot has changed over the decade and he wanted to keep up with the times. Most owners are happy with their cellars for decades.
Some cellars are still fine, 30, 40 or 50 years later. Gerard Perse is the only owner that was already state of the art who tore it all apart to be the most modern wine making facilities in all of Bordeaux!
The complete renovation was finished in time for the grand opening that was held, June, 2013, just before Vinexpo.
With his background in construction, Gerard Perse was able to complete the renovation in record time of only 24 months. The chateau is considered by some to be as controversial as the wine of Chateau Pavie, due to its flashy, attention grabbing, marble laden, reception area for guests. The new chateau was designed by the noted architect Alberto Pinto.
While large by St. Emilion standards, the front of the chateau is in many ways, traditional. The estimated cost of the renovations is close to a minimum of 15 million Euros.
Chateau Pavie Vineyards, Terroir, Grapes, Winemaking
The 42 hectare St. Emilion vineyard of Chateau Pavie is planted to 60% Merlot, 25% Cabernet Franc and 15% Cabernet Sauvignon. This represents a change in the vineyard with less Merlot and more Cabernet Franc. In addition to replanting, trellis wires throughout the vineyard were raised in order to increase the vines’ foliage.
In total, the vineyard has 37 hectares under vine. The vineyard is one large block. That alone is almost unique in Saint Emilion, but more important to the wines character, here you find various different terroirs. Each has its own micro-climate.
You can divide the soils like this. You have 21 separate parcels that start on the top of the plateau which is where you find deep, limestone soils with clay. At the peak elevation, which is 110 meters, there is more deep, rich, clay in the sub soil.
From there, as you move from the peak and travel further down the slopes, you have more limestone with some clay. At the bottom of the hill, you find sand, clay and gravel soil. Perhaps the best terroir of the vineyard is located at the peak, just behind the chateau.
In fact, Chateau Pavie is often one of the last Saint Emilion estates to finish harvesting. Pavie is also the largest of all the Premier Cru Classe A vineyards at 42 hectares.
The Chateau Pavie vineyard is farmed using sustainable, vineyard management techniques. Part of the goal at Chateau Pavie is to produce wine from ripe grapes and low yields. 70% of the vineyard is farmed using organic methods. It is the goal of the estate to become 100% organic.
To produce the wine of Chateau Pavie, it all starts with the severe level of selection. An initial sorting takes in the vineyards and again using optical sorting. For the vinification, the whole berries are moved by conveyor belt to oak tanks for crushing by gravity.
After a pre-fermentation cold maceration that can last for as long as 8 or 9 days at 8 degrees Celsius, there is a 36-day maceration. The wine is vinified in 20, temperature controlled, wood vats. The vats are often bled to increase concentration. Malolactic fermentation takes place in barrel.
The wine of Chateau Pavie is aged in 80% new, French oak barrels for 18 to months. The first 6 months, give or take of aging time are spent with the wine aging on its lees. The amount of new oak and time in the barrel will vary, depending on the characteristics of each Bordeaux vintage. There is a second wine, Aromes de Pavie. Chateau Pavie produces 8,000 cases of wine per year.
Chateau Pavie Character and Style
Chateau Pavie is a unique style of Bordeaux wine. The wine is deeply colored. In fact it’s often opaque in the best years. Chateau Pavie is rich, filled with minerality and a special purity of fruit that only comes from the world’s best wines.
It’s mouth filling with its density, offering a fabulous intensity of flavors that often resemble plums, blackberry, truffle, chocolate, licorice, blueberry and spice, with minerality. Pavie pairs elegance with power and concentration with the ability to age and evolve for decades. In fact, Pavie is not a great wine to drink young. Chateau Pavie often requires more than 15 years of age to soften and develop its complexities.
The best vintages of Chateau Pavie are: 2019, 2018, 2017, 2016, 2015, 2014, 2012, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000 and 1998. Earlier vintages are produced in a much different style, think classic Bordeaux, without the same ability for aging potential.
When to Drink Chateau Pavie, Anticipated Maturity, Decanting Time
Chateau Pavie is much better with at least 12-15 years of aging in good vintages. Young vintages can be decanted for 3-4 hours, or more. This allows the wine to soften and open its perfume.
Older vintages might need very little decanting, just enough to remove the sediment. Chateau Pavie offers its best drinking and should reach peak maturity between 15-40 years of age after the vintage.
Serving Chateau Pavie with Wine and Food Pairings
Chateau Pavie is best served at 15.5 degrees Celsius, 60 degrees Fahrenheit. The cool, almost cellar temperature gives the wine more freshness and lift.
Chateau Pavie is best paired with all types of classic meat dishes, veal, pork, beef, lamb, duck, game, roast chicken, roasted, braised and grilled dishes. Chateau Pavie is also good when matched with Asian dishes, rich fish courses like tuna, mushrooms and pasta.
The wine of Chateau Pavie sparks debates. Hopefully they are fun debates, but with wine involved, I’ve seen a few conversation become rather heated! Some tasters love the wine. Count me in that group. It is a favorite wine of Robert Parker. Other consumers do not enjoy the wine and prefer when it was made in a less ripe, thinner, less concentrated style.
My bet is, in time, when the Perse vintages have matured, the greatness of what Perse has accomplished at Pavie will be widely recognized. In fact, as we mentioned earlier, the efforts expended by Perse seems to have vindicated Perse and Parker because September 6, 2012 marked the day Chateau Pavie was upgraded in the official 2012 St. Emilion Classification to Chateau Pavie, St. Emilion, Premier Grand Cru Classe A.
Starting with the 2010 vintage of Chateau Pavie, to protect consumers and fight counterfeits, every bottle and label from this vintage forward has a lock slip on the capsule with a unique code that matches up to the identical number of the bottle displaying the date the wine was bottled and labeled at Chateau Pavie. The more things change, the more they stay the same.
For the 2012 vintage, to commemorate their promotion to Grand Cru Classe A status, Chateau Pavie introduced a new, sleek, quite artistically designed, regal looking label in gold and black, replacing the older, classic, green tinted design. Chateau Pavie returned to the standard label in subsequent vintages.
Château Pavie Wine Tasting Notes
34 Vintages 575,773 Views Sort by Vintage-Rating
|2018||Château Pavie (St. Émilion Grand Cru)|
Pitch black in color with a deep purple sheen, the wine brings intensity to a new level. Massive, the wine coats your palate, teeth and gums with incredible levels of fruit, rocks, smoke and espresso. In fact, the first sip had so much going on you take a step back. But as the fruit fills your mouth, painting it deep purple, you are simultaneously aware of the balance, purity, minerality and flamboyance. The finish holds its place for over 60 seconds. Made from a blend of 60% Merlot, 22% Cabernet Franc and 18% Cabernet Sauvignon, the wine reached 14.48% with a pH of 3.51. The harvest took place September 28 to October 10. There is an addendum here, the wine is so packed, it\'s as if a double magnum of wine was placed into a standard bottle. Is it too much for its own good? It is going to take up to 20 years to know if this wine morphs into a 100 Pt legend or not, (Which is possible) hence the wide score range. 96-100 Pts
3,349 Views Tasted Apr 19, 2019
|2018||Arômes de Pavie (St. Émilion Grand Cru)|
The second of wine of Pavie should be a brand of its own. Ripe, rich and stony, the fruit is ripe, round, juicy, fresh and stylish, leaving with ample fruits and minerality in the finish. You can enjoy this young while waiting for its big brother to develop. 90-92
1,152 Views Tasted Apr 19, 2019
|2017||Château Pavie (St. Émilion Grand Cru)|
Floral notes emerge from the deep garnet colored wine. Full-bodied, intense, deep, sweet and podgy, this wine is a tsunami of tannin and slate with layers of deep, ripe fruits that will demand aging. Made from a blend of 60% Merlot, 22% Cabernet Franc and 18% Cabernet Sauvignon, the wine reached 14.6% with a pH of 3.61. The harvest took place September 25 to October 3.
3,586 Views Tasted Apr 26, 2018
|2017||Arômes de Pavie (St. Émilion Grand Cru)|
With a distinct resemblance to its big brother, this second wine of Pavie reveals structure, ripe fruits and spice. You’ll find olives, plums and herbs emanating from the back end of this medium-bodied, approachable wine. This will be ready to drink upon release.
1,227 Views Tasted Apr 26, 2018
|2016||Château Pavie (St. Émilion Grand Cru)|
Inky in color, the wine is powerful, dense, concentrated, full-bodied and packed to the gills with its unique blend of flowers, crushed stone, smoke, licorice, espresso and very ripe plums and black cherries. Thick and rich, with a finish that does not want to quit, this attention-seeking beauty demands at least 10-15 years in the cellar before it's ready for prime time drinking.
2,592 Views Tasted Sep 26, 2019
Inky in color, the wine is pure silk and velvet. The reduction of new oak and the increase of the Cabernets really make a difference. Rich, dense, plush and pure, there is a sweetness to the fruit and complexity that moves the wine from red to black again and again. Made from a blend of 60% Merlot, 22% Cabernet Franc and 18% Cabernet Sauvignon, the wine reached 14.5% with a pH of 3.49 and the harvest took place October 10 to October 20.
5,516 Views Tasted Apr 29, 2017
|2016||Arômes de Pavie (St. Émilion Grand Cru)|
The second of wine of Pavie is made in a fruit-forward style with dark fruits and stone, just like its big brother. But of course, while there is a minor resemblance, this is made for early consumption with a focus on the fruity side.
1,025 Views Tasted Apr 29, 2017
|2015||Château Pavie (St. Émilion Grand Cru)|
Layers of fruit just keep on coming. The fruit is intense, sweet, fresh and powerful, with purity, length and complexity. The velvet texture coats your mouth. There are no hard edges from start to finish. The finish lasts at least 60 seconds! This is hedonistic and intellectual. But you need patience, as it will reward 15-20 years of cellaring.
4,158 Views Tasted May 21, 2018
Opaque in color, this wine is dense, fat, rich and packed with mouth-coating fruits. The wine stains your teeth and palate and leaves you with waves of sweet, luscious, intense, pure black fruits. There is a touch of heat, but there is such a wealth of fruit and the berries are so pure, thick and sweet, it’s barely noticeable. I'd like to be as rich as this wine! For fans of Pavie, this will provide fodder for debates as to which vintage of Pavie is the best. My money is on the 2015, but the owner thinks it is the 2010 –this high-class conundrum will definitely bring about great tastings in the years to come!
8,146 Views Tasted Apr 29, 2016
|2015||Arômes de Pavie (St. Émilion Grand Cru)|
The second of wine of Pavie is an easy-drinking, medium-bodied, forward-style St. Emilion with sweet, fresh, red fruits, thyme and soft textures.
1,551 Views Tasted Apr 29, 2016
|2014||Château Pavie (St. Émilion Grand Cru)|
Spicy, floral, licorice and dark cherries are all over the place. Soft tannins, stone and juicy plums, with licorice create the finish. There is concentration, but not quite what you find in the big years, this is more of a refined vintage for Pavie.
2,778 Views Tasted Apr 2, 2017
Powerful, tannic and full-bodied with intense minerality, this wine is fashioned with fresh, sweet cherries and black and red plums. Compelling with ripe, silky tannins, this vintage demands time before it all comes together. Pavie can be difficult to taste in barrel. In fact, it was difficult to taste through the oak cloak. It took coaxing and effort to find it. I'm looking forward to tasting it again. The wine reached 14.22% with a pH of 3.59 and is aging in 80% new, French oak. 92-95 Pts
4,566 Views Tasted Apr 27, 2015
|2014||Arômes de Pavie (St. Émilion Grand Cru)|
Light, early drinking wine for mid term pleasure. It is charming and tasty, but not overly complicated.
1,534 Views Tasted Nov 14, 2017
|2013||Château Pavie (St. Émilion Grand Cru)|
There is a beautiful sweetness to the ripe fruit that was extremely difficult to find in 2013. With a blast of plum, boysenberry and dark chocolate, the wine has rich fruit and texture that really carries through from start to finish. The wine reached 13.26% alcohol, which should please detractors of riper vintages of Pavie. 93-94 Pts
3,698 Views Tasted Apr 29, 2014
|2012||Château Pavie (St. Émilion Grand Cru)|
Silky tannins, pure fruits, rocks and stone with licorice and fresh cherries are all over the place. There is richness here, but it is a bit subdued from other, riper, more powerful vintages, which might end up being a very good thing.
2,138 Views Tasted Sep 17, 2018
On the track for positive development, the wine is rich, opulent and deeply concentrated. The tannins are lush and polished and the finish leaves you with ample, juicy, ripe, fleshy fruits, licorice, smoke, espresso and truffles.
3,193 Views Tasted Nov 14, 2017
Deep in color, the fruits are ripe, floral, truffle, wet earth and spicy aromas blend right in with the plums and cherries here. Lushly textured, rich, fresh and long, you can drink this with a few hours of air, or wait a decade.
1,817 Views Tasted Apr 2, 2017
Silky, soft and lush, dense and stony, with a licorice, espresso bean, floral and dark red cherry essence, the wine is long, fresh, sweet and supple. This is the first vintage for Pavie where they are able to use the new classification on the label. To celebrate the occasion, the bottle comes in a special black and gold label for this vintage only.
4,035 Views Tasted May 15, 2015
With the color of a deep ruby gem, the wine pops with spice, incense, fresh brewed espresso, plum, cherry and blackberry. Smooth, polished and silky, there is a beautiful, sweet core of ripe red, white and black cherries. 93-95 Pts
4,741 Views Tasted Apr 26, 2013
|2011||Château Pavie (St. Émilion Grand Cru)|
Tannic, young and stony at this stage, if you have a bottle give it 3- 5 years in the cellar, or 2-4 hours in the decanter.
3,027 Views Tasted May 2, 2017
Spicy, with smoke, incense, stone, burnt wood, licorice and fresh plum aromas. Silky tannins, good concentration of flavor and plush textured, blackberry, fennel and plum are found in the spicy, smoke filled finish. This is one of the top Right Bank wines from this difficult vintage.
5,902 Views Tasted May 21, 2014
Inky and opaque in color with truffle, stone, black cherry, plum, espresso bean, licorice and floral scents. This rich, deep and intense wine is fleshy, round, concentrated and supple with silky tannins and liqueruious dark fruit. Blackberry, plum, mineral and espresso bean can be found in the opulent, tannic finish. 93-95 Pts
6,947 Views Tasted Apr 24, 2012
|2010||Château Pavie (St. Émilion Grand Cru)|
Tight and holding much of what it has in reserve at the moment, the wine requires 3-4 hours of air, and lots of swirling before you start finding the licorice, smoke, crushed rick, flower and plummy notes. Rich and palate-staining, there is a lot going on here, if you can wait at least another decade.
1,500 Views Tasted Sep 17, 2018
Inky in color, the wine is stuffed with layers of ripe, sweet, dense, mouth coating dark berries and lush textures that delivers layers of fruit. The wine ends with a long, pure, intense, licorice, dark berry, chocolate, blackberry and boysenberry finish. Lay this down for at least a decade.
9,421 Views Tasted May 8, 2013
2010 Pavie From a blend of 70% Merlot, 20% Cabernet Franc and 10% Cabernet Sauvignon, the wine is deep in color. With aromas of fresh plums, licorice, crushed stone, flowers, pepper and earthy scents, this is a Pavie with a refined character. In fact the level of alcohol is low for recent vintages of St. Emilion and Pavie. In 2010, it reached 14.2%, which is lower than every recent vintage of Pavie. 2010 is not produced in a big, ripe style. With structure and refinement, this is a balanced wine with complexity. It is not as upfront and showy as 2009, 2005, 2003, or 2000 and that will make some people happy and will not please others. Like they say, you can’t make everyone happy all the time. 95-97 Pts During the tasting, Gerard Perse ranked his favorite vintages of Pavie. 2010, 2009, 2005 and 2000 are in the order Perse ranks them. That’s interesting as for me, from those 4 vintages, I am the exact reverse order.
8,943 Views Tasted Jul 30, 2011
|2009||Château Pavie (St. Émilion Grand Cru)|
Still quite young, the wine is almost inky in color. The initial sniff brings on a strong aromatics of ripe, dark red, black and blue fruits, espresso beans, smoke, licorice, oyster shell and crushed rock. Powerful, dense and mouth-coating, the wine takes up a lot of room on your palate, coating your mouth with layers of fruit, tannin, oak and stones. Give this a decade to round out, soften and develop, and it could really offer a sublime tasting experience.
2,033 Views Tasted Sep 20, 2019
The color of purple ink, the perfume displays intense minerality, blueberry, plum, blackberry jam, licorice, coffee and spicy black cherry aromas. This low acid Bordeaux wine coats your mouth with layers of rich, ripe, dense fruit. The long finish is filled with fresh blackberry, stone, blue fruit and coffee.
8,053 Views Tasted Jul 30, 2013
2009 Pavie, from vines close to 50 years old, is as black as a moonless sky. Incense, licorice, jammy dark fruit, and minerals are the first things you smell. This incredibly concentrated wine fills every area of your palate with dense, decadent berry sensations. The wine finishes with a mélange of chocolate, plum liqueur, and black cherries. This is a thick, hedonistic wine. 96-99 Pts
8,560 Views Tasted Jun 29, 2010
|2008||Château Pavie (St. Émilion Grand Cru)|
Luscious and sexy, rich and powerful, long and fresh, this has a lot going on. Full bodied and intense, the wine is still young, but it is impossible not to get all the sweetness and purity in the fruits, along with its minerality. But you need to wait another decade.
3,360 Views Tasted Sep 17, 2018
08 Château Pavie has the color of a pitch black, moonless night. The perfume is packed with boysenberry, minerals, truffles, smoke, and dark berries. This wine is thick, rich, and decadent. It feels soft and plush on your palate as it flows across all your pleasure buttons. Definitely a hedonistic style of wine. 94-97Pts
12,318 Views Tasted Jul 1, 2009
|2007||Château Pavie (St. Émilion Grand Cru)|
Drinking at close to peak, the wine is soft, open and expressive, medium/full bodied with soft fruits and tannins. Drink this now, while waiting for the big boys to develop.
3,622 Views Tasted May 2, 2017
|2006||Château Pavie (St. Émilion Grand Cru)|
Still deep in color, the wine is developing secondary aromatics of truffle, cigar box, earth, licorice and blackberries. The tannins are a bit strict here, the wine has a firm character, full bodied and ample concentration that will require at least 5 - 10 more years to soften and develop.
6,615 Views Tasted May 25, 2016
Broad shouldered, powerful and tannic, the wine is packed with ripe, juicy blackberry, licorice, coffee bean, vanilla, smoke, plum and minerality. This tannic vintage requires time to soften. I’d give it until 2018 or 2020.
4,400 Views Tasted May 7, 2012
|2005||Château Pavie (St. Émilion Grand Cru)|
Youthful, fresh, vibrant, concentrated and still quite tannic. There is depth, length and the strong presence of crushed rock, licorice, smoke, flowers and dark red fruits. Time will add a lot to this wine. I'd wait until at least 2023 before popping a cork, unless you have a case or so, hanging around.
4,292 Views Tasted Jan 20, 2018
Still young, with a few hours of air, the wine fills out, adding much needed softness to the tannins and wall of fruit and crushed rocks. There is a freshness and purity to the fruit, along with some oak that needs another 5 years to better integrate. To drink it now, you need to give it at least 2-3 hours of air. Else, age it another 5-10 years.
5,380 Views Tasted Jun 23, 2017
This is so tightly wound at the moment, it is not fun to taste. Yet, it is impossible not to be impressed by the dark, inky color, coupled by the wall of ripe, mineral soaked fruits, layers of flavors, intensities and textures. But this will need another decade to develop enough, to be fun to taste.
6,087 Views Tasted Feb 5, 2017
I get to taste the post 1998 vintages of Pavie a lot. My feeling is, the 2005 is probably the best of those wines until the dynamic duo of 2009/2010. It continues developing on a good path. The wine is still dark in color, with rich, fat, juicy, opulent, plush textures, fresh, sweet, ripe fruits, pungent aromatics and a long finish with power, length and purity. If you have a case and you're the curious type, pop a cork. If you only have a bottle or two, wait another decade.
7,498 Views Tasted May 18, 2016
Truffle, tobacco, earth, espresso, cigar box, and sweet black, blue and red fruit scents are the first thing you notice Powerful, concentrated, tannic, yet balanced, complex, young and fresh. This mineral driven wine is obviously very good, but it’s even more obvious that this is oh, so young. Give it 10 to 15 more years.
6,717 Views Tasted Jun 28, 2015
Tight and demanding coaxing to find its charms, with effort, spice, wood, oak, coffee and dark berries can be found. This is intense, concentrated and packed with layer and layer of ripe fruits poured over broken stones. This is not the best time to taste this wine and it is not showing all its stuff. Give it another 5-10 years.
7,093 Views Tasted May 19, 2013
Already expressing a complex perfume of truffle, fudge, limestone, blueberry, black plums, chocolate, licorice, coffee bean, vanilla and kirsch, this intense, full bodied, powerful and rich Bordeaux wine is almost at the level of the stunning 2000. The long, pure, mineral infused, ripe fruit finish remains in your palate for close to 60 seconds.
15,889 Views Tasted Aug 12, 2010
Wearing an inky, opaue, black, purple robe, the amazing, complex perfume grabbed your attention. But only until your palate caught up with incredible layers of opulent, silky, velvety, black cherry, mineral and plum flavored fruit that took over and would not let go. Absolutely compelling!
15,531 Views Tasted Jul 21, 2008
|2004||Château Pavie (St. Émilion Grand Cru)|
Not fully mature, but drinking quite nice, especially as it was pop and pour, the luscious textured fruit felt great. Concentrated, rich, sweet, juicy and fresh, the smoke, licorice, plums, espresso and earthy character was hitting all the right notes.
4,895 Views Tasted Aug 7, 2017
Rich, ripe, concentrated and showing a good intensity of flavor, this still youthful wine has velvety tannins and a polished, lushly textured finish.
5,085 Views Tasted Nov 30, 2014
This is tight at the moment, With decanting and some coaxing, smoke, charcoal, licorice, plum, 5 spice, minerals and vanilla latte scents could be found. Richly textured, with ample concentrated fruit, this round, plummy, full bodied wine ends with sensations of polished dark berries and coca powder, which is slightly marred by some green flavors. Give this another 6-8 years and it should really open up.
10,640 Views Tasted Feb 4, 2011
|2003||Château Pavie (St. Émilion Grand Cru)|
Lush, ripe, rich, full-bodied, ripe, even very ripe, but not over-ripe, the wine is plummy and loaded with smoke, espresso, licorice, stone and dark, ripe plums. This is a good time to be drinking this.
2,464 Views Tasted Feb 10, 2020
Decanted about 30 minutes, this is showing great today. Black cherry, smoke, plum, stone and floral notes pop with ease. Full-bodied, soft, rich and balanced, there is no touch of heat or sensation of overripeness. This beauty is drinking great today. If you have a bottle, pop a cork and check it out.
3,617 Views Tasted Aug 12, 2019
Concentrated, lush rich and not overripe, though, there is a mild touch of heat in the opulent finish. The wine kicks off with its nose of dark, red berries, espresso, licorice, and earth. This is a good time to be drinking this, although, there is no hurry to pop a cork.
3,637 Views Tasted Jan 20, 2018
3 - 4 hours of decanting really made a difference. The plan was for about 2 hours of air, but we did not get to the bottle, and I am sure it helped. The wine offered this fabulous, tobacco, rock, plum, earthy character, with a richness, but no sense of over ripeness. It was long, soft and complex.
4,380 Views Tasted Dec 3, 2016
Powerful, rich, intense, with a boatload of rich, ripe fruits, crushed stone, licorice and floral aromatics. Ready to drink, but still youthful for a 2003 St. Emilion, the wine is opulent, fat, mouth filling and leaves you with a long finish of ripe, juicy dark plums, dark black cherries, earth and cocoa.
4,454 Views Tasted Sep 11, 2016
Power, concentration, intensity, ripe fruits and rocks make up the true blend for this wine. The wine is rich, dense and has a long life to look forward to. I know some people do not like the wine, but I love it! It's definitely better with an hour or two of air.
6,251 Views Tasted Jul 30, 2015
Crushed stone, fennel, smoke, caramel and black cherry liqueur. The mineral essence is starting to show through on the palate and in the nose. Packed with layers of ripe, sweet berries, spice and earth, this is fat, lush and mouth filling with good intensity of flavor.
5,740 Views Tasted Mar 24, 2014
Intense, thick, lush, rich, fresh and packed with intense levels of sweet, pure fruits, minerality, oak, and frankly, pleasure, this is still young and is only going to get better with age.
7,512 Views Tasted Dec 18, 2013
With an attention seeking perfume filled with licorice, smoke, coffee, black cherry liqueur, truffle and stone, the wine is really starting to drink well. The rich, fat, sweet, pure, opulently textured fruit feels great on your palate. An hour or two in the decanter improve the experience. But if you do not have time to decant, do not worry, you'll get a lot of bang for the buck if you pop and pour.
6,977 Views Tasted Nov 5, 2012
An intoxicating aroma of smoke, licorice, earth, black cherry, orange rind, incense, limestone, truffles, fresh cut herbs, coffee bean and blackberry demand to get noticed. Deep in color, with visible glycerine in the tears that stain the glass, the wine offers fat layers of ripe, juicy, sweet, pure, black plum, blueberry, dark chocolate and spice. The wine continued to improve in the glass for at least 4 hours. It might have kept going, but I could not keep my hands off it. The delicious finish lasts for at least 45 seconds. While some tasters found this wine to be over the top when young, it's calmed down and offers a great, tasting experience. If you have multiple bottles, it's worth popping a bottle to see how 2003 Pavie is developing.
7,851 Views Tasted Jun 30, 2012
Black cherry, blueberry, licorice, crushed stone, espresso and cherry liqueur get the perfume going. This potent elixir is rich, fat, round, and lush in the mouth. The powerful finish is filled with intense, ripe, licorice coated black and blue fruits. This exciting Bordeaux wine, does not show any signs of over ripeness that is found in some wines from this hot, dry vintage.
14,315 Views Tasted Aug 12, 2010
|2002||Château Pavie (St. Émilion Grand Cru)|
One of the top wines of this cooler vintage is rich, concentrated and loaded with ripe, black cherry, licorice, dark chocolate, cedar and wet earth. The tannins are soft, the finish is long and the aromatics are complex. For those that find Pavie too much for their delicate senses, this is a good vintage to explore, due to its cool, weather characteristics.
4,637 Views Tasted Jan 29, 2017
2 hours of air brought out the chocolate covered, black cherries, truffle, licorice, cigar box and floral notes. Soft, smooth and round, but lacking the volume and opulence found in the top vintages, this is really drinking well. While 2 hours of air brought the wine around, after 4 hours of air, the wine lost its edge. This is for drinking now and over the next decade or so.
4,214 Views Tasted Sep 4, 2015
Floral, earth, cherry blossoms, licorice, black raspberries, smoke and a faint whisper of oak in the background open to a soft, dusty, olive tapenade and plummy palate. This is probably at or close to its peak. No hurry to drink it, but it's not a wine to lay down for decades. I decanted this about 2 hours before consumption. The olive component became stronger as the night wore on. My instincts say, this wine might be better with a short decant, or popped and poured and allowed to develop in the glass.
3,617 Views Tasted Aug 26, 2014
There are some nights when a bottle of Pavie is all that will do. This was one of those nights. Still dark in color, blackberry, blueberry, earth, truffle, kirsch liqueur, licorice, smoke and a hint of espresso bean with dark chocolate made the perfume come alive with little effort and perhaps 30 minutes in the decanter. On the palate is where its star shines brightly. It's the perfect balance between thick and concentrated meshed against opulent, velvet textures. This is like drinking pure pleasure. If you get hung up on modern, vs traditional styles, perhaps this is not your thing. But if you look at wines as a vehicle for pleasure, this is a nice way to go. It's young, but starting to open. Drink it, or wait a decade.
3,954 Views Tasted Jan 25, 2013
Blackberry liqueur, smoke, truffle, stone, earth, caramel, fresh herbs and a faint hint of espresso bean make up the perfume. On the palate, concentrated flavors of fresh black raspberry, bitter chocolate, Maraschino cherry flavors unfold with luscious, rich, sexy textures. This is a great place to catch this wine. It should deliver pleasure and continue to expand for at least another 10-15 years. This is much better than the last bottle I opened and both were from the same case!
4,931 Views Tasted Jan 8, 2012
This opened with a quiet nose of truffle, smoke, minerality and spicy black raspberries. Lush, plush and sensuous on the palate, most of the tannin has been resolved. The wine finished with a soft, spicy, licorice and spicy, black cherry finish. Each bottle has its own personality. Some are going to be better than others .I tend to think this was not a correct bottle as I've had this wine before and its shown better. I'm going to need to open another in the near future to discover if it was this bottle, or the specific vintage that has not developing as well as expected.
5,785 Views Tasted Aug 16, 2011
|2001||Château Pavie (St. Émilion Grand Cru)|
This continues developing and evolving in a positive direction. Popped and poured, this beauty is at maturity offering sensuous textures, ripe, lush, soft, silky fruit, concentration and complexity with a lengthy finish that holds your interest sip after sip. This might get better, but it's drinking so well today, if you own a bottle, you should definitely pop a cork.
477 Views Tasted Mar 29, 2020
This is in the zone. Splash decanted and poured, the nose, with its smoke, crushed rock, floral, truffle, dark cherry and cigar wrapper aromas let you know the wine was ready to go. Concentrated, soft, silky, stone and loaded with sweet, plums and cherries, this was great from the get-go. The wine did not move from its initial taste, so I imagine, this is at peak and will remain there for at least 6-8 or more years.
2,286 Views Tasted Sep 15, 2018
With a nose of licorice, dark chocolate covered boysenberries, smoke and coffee bean, this is really singing. In the sweet spot, this is soft, plush, silky and luscious on the palate. Decanted one hour prior to serving gets this ready to go. There was a fair amount of sediment in the bottle. Drink now and over the 12-15 years.
3,762 Views Tasted Aug 31, 2014
The nose explodes from the glass with charcoal, smoke, licorice, blackberry, plum, spice, truffle and earthy scents. Opulent, sensuous and sexy on the palate, the wine ends with rich, concentrated layers of chocolate covered dark berries, spice, black cherry and plum liqueur. There is room to improve, but this is drinking so well today, it's hard not to want to pop a bottle. Wine at this level is part of the reason Chateau Pavie was recently promoted to Premier Grand Cru Classe A.
5,148 Views Tasted Sep 20, 2013
Licorice, black cherry, truffle, coffee bean, coconut, barbecue, spice, mineral, hot bricks and fresh herbs make up the attention seeking perfume. Silky, round textures with ripe plums. spice, coffee, minerality and cocoa flavors are found in the rich, fruit, opulent filled finish. 2001 Pavie is drinking great today and this is only going to get better. This was popped and poured and just kept getting better. Maybe it deserves another point.
6,057 Views Tasted Mar 14, 2012
The wine opens with fresh picked blackberries, dark cherries, 5 spice, fennel and hints of espresso bean. Full bodied and concentrated with juicy ripe plums, chocolate, fennel and minerality, the wine ends in a velvet textured, long, ripe, spicy, dark berry filled finish.
9,910 Views Tasted Jul 7, 2010
|2000||Château Pavie (St. Émilion Grand Cru)|
Concentrated, powerful, tannic, stony and a bit tight, there is a wealth of fruit here, coupled with intensive, stony minerality and tannins for further aging. Lurking below the surface, the ripe, fresh cherry and plums are there, accompanied by licorice, flowers, crushed rock, oak, smoke and spice nuances. This bottle seemed tighter than others. Based on this example, the wine needs at least 2 hours of decanting or another 5 years in the cellar.
2,390 Views Tasted Feb 10, 2020
Powerful, concentrated, deep and packed with deep, ripe, red and black fruits, smoke, thyme, earth and all the rocks and stones you need, this is young, fresh and luscious. Richly textured, with layers of dark fruits, at close to 18, it is hard to believe this is not yet fully mature. Another 5 years will add even more to the wine.
4,857 Views Tasted Sep 7, 2017
Incredible levels of concentration, perfectly ripe fruits, crushed rocks, licorice and smoke are all over the place. The wine is intense, lush, young, fresh and sweet. The tannins are ripe, the finish serves up layers of fresh, sweet plums, cherry, thyme and earthy notes that are made even better with the velvety textures. This remains quite young. At least another 5-10 years of bottle age will add a lot to this wine.
6,081 Views Tasted Aug 31, 2015
Structured, mineral driven, powerful, floral, fresh, concentrated and complex, this has the stuffing and structure to age and develop for decades. The baby fat has faded away and new complexities have started to emerge. This bottle was popped and poured. I would think an hour of two of air would have made the wine even better.
6,670 Views Tasted Dec 10, 2014
Tasted twice in the same week, blind and not blind, this wine is a stunner. The finest wine yet produced at Pavie under the watch of Gerard Perse, this has it all. The perfume is packed with charcoal, smoke, mineral, truffle, wet earth, cocoa, blackberry, plum, licorice and black cherry liqueur. Powerful, yet refined, rich, silky, elegant and intense, the ample fruit on display is pure, balanced and attention seeking. Still young, feel free to pop a cork to catch it in its youth, or age it for decades.
9,272 Views Tasted Jun 15, 2013
Smoke, spice, licorice , crushed rocks, earth and ripe berry aromas open to a powerful, balanced, rich, intense, lush wine that improves with each sniff, sip and swallow. Complex and concentrated, the wine grabs your attention and keeps it where it belongs. This is serious juice that deserves to be tasted. I tasted this from pristine bottles in Bordeaux from the chateau and few weeks later in a blind tasting with similar comments. This is a stunning wine and for the moment, it remains the best vintage of Pavie produced by Gerard Perse yet.
8,976 Views Tasted May 19, 2013
Licorice, smoky cherries, truffle, forest floor and spice create the aromatics. On the palate, the wine is massive, concentrated and palate staining with incredible length and a beautiful sense of purity to the fruit. Still young, I would not be surprised to see this age for decades.
7,284 Views Tasted Feb 18, 2013
If you're a fan of Gerard Perse and Pavie, this is the wine to own. It has never been short of spectacular! The complex perfume is packed with crushed stone, licorice, blackberry liqueur, spice, earth and minerality. This stunning St. Emilion coats your mouth with silky layers of perfectly ripe, polished, corpulent, fruit and stone. Everything is in balance and harmony. While this is showing great at only 12 years of age, its best days are ahead. It's hard to predict when this will be fully mature, but its on target to be 30, 40 or 50 year wine.
11,892 Views Tasted Feb 22, 2012
Intense in all the right places. Waves of ripe, black fruit with truffle, licorice and crushed rocks grab your attention. Powerful, rich, concentrated, opulent and lush, this hedonistic Bordeaux is almost too much of a good thing. Note, I said almost too much. The wine is perfectly balanced and is brimming with freshness and purity. The wine finishes with a mouth full of perfectly ripe, chocolate covered black raspberry and the essence of ripe along with almost over ripe, juicy black plums.
12,702 Views Tasted Mar 5, 2011
Off the hook, or off the charts works to describe this wine. If either of those descriptors seem lacking, what about liqueur of St. Emilion? Or does insane levels of perfectly ripe, lush, palate coating fruit, minerality, smoke, licorice, slate and chocolate covered black and blue fruit sound better? Add a finish that lasts over a minute, filling every nook and cranny of your palate and that should give you an idea of how good this wine is. Tasted blind in a flight with 03 and 05 Pavie, this was thewine of the flight. Still young, this future legendary Bordeaux wine will only get better with time
13,821 Views Tasted Aug 12, 2010
When you swirl, glycerin drips from the of the glass lip like wax from a melting candle. Elixir of blackberry, jammy fruits, spice box, minerals, molasses, sweet licorice, vanilla and coffee explode in your face. Incredible levels of concentrated Bordeaux are found in this wine! The amount of chocolate drenched, ripe and over ripe fruit that fills every nook and cranny of your palate is mind blowing! This is so thick, you want to eat it. And you probably could! Perfectly in balance, this is what hedonism and great wine is all about. The seamless finish lasts over one minute.
9,198 Views Tasted Jul 1, 2008
The perfume is compelling. Notes of ripe, black fruit with accents of raspberries, coffee, licorice, bitter chocolate and wood are stunning. But for me, the real fireworks take place when the wine begins filling every nook and cranny of my palate. This is so thick and plush, with multiple layers of sexy, ripe, decadent fruit I was stunned. For my palate, these are not over extracted, they are perfectly balanced Bordeaux wines. There is so much going on in this wine, it's hard to believe it's only 5 years old. The finish lasted close to :60! When fully mature, this future legend will define decadence.
6,082 Views Tasted Feb 28, 2005
The wine’s color is completely opaque with black, purple tints. The aromatics were exotic. Spices, wood, anise and candied red and black fruit took over your nasal cavities. This incredibly, concentrated, complex wine is seamless. It is so rich, it must be tasted to be believed! The wine coats every nook and cranny of your palate. The finish was the longest finish of the night! The 00 Pavie is a great wine with a long life ahead. I hope to begin working on my case starting in another decade.
5,158 Views Tasted Jun 1, 2004
|1999||Château Pavie (St. Émilion Grand Cru)|
A very nice wine drinking in the sweet spot. Concentrated, lush, ripe, sweet and easy to enjoy due to its lavish fruit, licorice, dark cocoa, smoke and ripe plum character.
1,905 Views Tasted Feb 10, 2020
I've tasted this wine a few times over the past month. Each bottle has been delicous with its licorice, smoky black cherry, earth, cocoa and truffle personality. Lush, plush and fully ready to deliver pleasure today.
4,490 Views Tasted Feb 13, 2014
Licorice, smoke, truffle, blackberry, black cherry, stone and coffee bean scents open to a soft, round, plush, ripe, rich wine. The sensuous finish ends with jammy blackberry, chocolate, licorice and earthy notes. 1999 Pavie is one of the top wines of the vintage and its drinking perfectly today.
4,500 Views Tasted Sep 20, 2012
Smoke, blackberry, cassis, licorice, and truffle scents express a wine that's mature. Opulent in texture, this ripe wine finishes with chocolate, plum liqueur and licorice flavors. This is a nice example of Pavie,especially for the vintage, but it falls short of the level hit by later vintages.
9,490 Views Tasted Aug 21, 2010
Opaque, purple, black hue. Black fruits, cherries, anise, spicy oak and forest aromas become apparent with a little coaxing. Full bodied, very concentrated wine. In the mouth, the feeling is of perfect balance between huge and suave sensations, like marrying elegance with weight and depth. Layers of liquefied, black cherries on the palate offer a long, rich finish.
2,702 Views Tasted Sep 29, 2008
|1998||Château Pavie (St. Émilion Grand Cru)|
With a nose of smoke, licorice, dark chocolate, espresso, herbs, black cherry, plum and a tiny background note of fig, the wine is full-bodied, rich, soft and stony. The wine ends with sweet, deep red fruit, salty tannins and licorice in the finish. With about 30 minutes of air, the wine continued filling out as it remained in the glass. This is showing close to full maturity. There is no hurry to drink it. But if you have been waiting to pop a cork, your wait is over.
2,308 Views Tasted Sep 15, 2019
Similar to the last bottles tasted, the wine lacks excitement. More interesting on the floral, licorice, earth, dark cherry, plum and stone nose than on the palate. There is no reason to hold this wine any longer hoping for further development.
3,351 Views Tasted Aug 8, 2016
There is probably no reason to hold this wine any longer. The secondary aromatics are in full force, with their licorice, stone, smoke and dark plum with red berry profile. Concentrated, full bodied and rich, the only draw back to the wine is a touch of bitter olive in the finish, which some tasters are going to like more than others.
4,795 Views Tasted Jun 15, 2013
Vanilla, licorice, chocolate, coffee bean, black cherry and earthy aromas were in abundance. The ripe, round tannins delivered soft, textures and a plush mouth feel, but the wine was over-oaked. The chocolate, plum and vanilla finish was not dry, but it was a bit too sweet and the oak was mildly intrusive. Served blind, it was obvious the wine was from a great terroir, but that while this vintage was good, I was willing to bet later vintages showed a marked improvement in quality. Pavie, thanks to the spare no expense attitude of Gerard Perse did not become one of the stars of St. Emilion until 2000. In 1998, he was just getting his sea legs. There is no hurry to drink the wine, it was still young and fresh. But the 1998 Pavie is not at the level achieved by later vintages.
7,783 Views Tasted Oct 15, 2012
Still deep in color,with a pungent nose of chocolate, plums, coffee bean, smoke and truffle, this rich, ripe and close to mature St. Emilion ends with a chocolate covered boysenberry, vanilla and black cherry finish. Compared to wines from Pavie starting in 2000. this is a beefier, less opulent style of Bordeaux wine.
7,944 Views Tasted Sep 9, 2011
With an expressive bouquet of licorice, smoke, juicy black plums, blueberry and fresh black cherries, this richly textured, elegant, plush wine has turned the corner. On several occasions, this seemed like a good wine, but with the proclivity towards being chunky. This was the first time the felt sophisticated on the palate, The suave finish ended with chocolate covered plums and cassis. If you have more than a few bottles, it's time to crack one. However, the wine will only get better from here.
9,518 Views Tasted Feb 5, 2011
98 Pavie - With its chocolate, black raspberry, licorice, mineral, coconut, floral coffee, caramel and earthy scented nose is easy to notice. Full bodied and concentrated with fruit, but the tannins are a little rustic. The finish displays a mix of red and black fruit sensations and fat textures along with chocolate covered licorice and black cherry. While this is a good wine, it's not in the same league as the wines produced by Perse starting with the 2000 vintage.
9,940 Views Tasted Sep 11, 2010
This is a powerful, full bodied wine that needs 5 or more years to reveal all its charms. Layers of concentrated deep dark fruit and a complex perfume make this wine a treat to taste. Similar to Ausone in that the wine is less opulent and does not deliver the same level of intensity as do subsequent vintages.
3,112 Views Tasted Oct 14, 2008
Thick, rich, palate staining fruit please the senses. This is a very powerful, full bodied wine that needs time to reach full maturity
3,115 Views Tasted Aug 31, 2007
Inky black in color. A nose filled with black fruit, fennel, stone, herbs and spices. Full bodied with a lasting palate presence.
3,079 Views Tasted Feb 25, 2007
This deeply colored wine filled with black fruit, plums and coffee is already approachable. The flavors and complexity married to the plush texture your palate experiences are what great Bordeaux is all about.
3,073 Views Tasted Feb 28, 2005
Opaque, black, purple ink. No lightening at the edges. An intoxicating perfume of plums, blackberries, licorice, mocha, spicy oak and floral scents say hello! Huge, dense, elegant layer of fruit envelopes your palate. Concentrated, full bodied, packed and stacked with ripe fruit. There is no mistaking this wine for anything other than Bordeaux. Mouth drying tannins. :40 second deep, rich finish.
3,135 Views Tasted Dec 4, 2004
The nose, showed off lavish smells of licorice, coffee, spice, ripe red and black fruits. The palate is dense and concentrated with layers upon layers of fruit. Thick and full-bodied with a clean, pure, black fruit filled finish.
3,132 Views Tasted May 26, 2004
|1990||Château Pavie (St. Émilion Grand Cru)|
Looking a little older than its true, due to the lightness of color, the nose served up its delicate blend of forest floor, sweet, red plum and cherry and tobacco notes with little to no effort. Softly textured on the palate, with an earthy, fresh, bright red berry finish.
4,386 Views Tasted Nov 19, 2017
|1989||Château Pavie (St. Émilion Grand Cru)|
The perfume of tobacco, spice, earth, and truffle was a pleasure to smell. But the wine was simple, lacking the same level of depth, excitement, and intensity found in the wines made at the property today. This bottle was served to me blind by Jean-Luc Thunevin. After tasting the wine and expressing my thoughts, Jean-Luc called 89 Pavie, “a wine of terroir”. I asked if that was good or bad in this case. With his impish grin, he slyly smiled and said “both’.
3,817 Views Tasted Jun 14, 2009
|1982||Château Pavie (St. Émilion Grand Cru)|
After 30 years, not much of this wine is left. Although tasters who think Perse ruined Pavie will probably like the wine more than I did. There is a stemmy quality to the earthy, tobacco, cranberry and spice nose. Medium bodied, with a tartness to the cherry finish. It was interesting to compare this with one of the modern, Perse era Pavie wines.
4,349 Views Tasted Jun 4, 2012
|1978||Château Pavie (St. Émilion Grand Cru)|
Medium bodied, soft, earthy short and loaded with cherries and tobacco. Easy to drink, but not overly complex. Fully mature and then some, this requires drinking.
2,521 Views Tasted Jun 4, 2018
|1964||Château Pavie (St. Émilion Grand Cru)|
Quite earthy, the sweet, pure, fresh cherries were stained with tobacco. Medium bodied, elegant and fresh, the finish served up a nice spicy note. This is a wine for drinking, not aging.
1,525 Views Tasted Nov 22, 2018
|1961||Château Pavie (St. Émilion Grand Cru)|
Surprisingly nice, with truffles, tobacco, red plum, spice, stone and wet forest floor aromas. On the palate, the wine is medium/full bodied, silky and smooth, finishing with sweet, spicy, black and red cherries.
4,098 Views Tasted May 21, 2013
|1953||Château Pavie (St. Émilion Grand Cru)|
It is always interesting to taste an older vintage of wine for the time. Tasted blind, this was a beauty. Silky, elegant and refined in texture, the wine opened with a spicy, earthy, tobacco, dark cocoa and red plum nose. On the palate, with its soft, caressing textures, the finish left you feeling great, especially with all the rocks, stones, sea salt and cherries in the endnote.
1,682 Views Tasted Oct 16, 2018
|1924||Château Pavie (St. Émilion Grand Cru)|
This didn't taste a day over 50 years of age! From a seldom seen vintage, there was a lot to like about this fully mature, mineral driven, red berry and smoke dominated wine.
2,351 Views Tasted May 8, 2014
With a pale, red tea color, the wine was better on the nose than the palate with its earthy, floral, tobacco, crushed rock, cherry and strawberry notes. The fruit, while light, offered silky, earthy, sweet and sour cherries, minerality and spice. It’s not often I get to taste wines I’ve never seen before, and now that I’ve tasted a bottle, will sadly, probably never experience again. This was truly a memorable bottle!
2,703 Views Tasted May 25, 2013